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Stem Cell Research

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Stem Cells and Skin Beauty

  • As we age, the renewal system of our skin gets slow . Adult stem cells at the deeper layer of skin, near hair follicles are said to be responsible for such renewal. Hence, when years are being added to life, the skin complexion may gradually grow from charming to dull or at least not as smooth and bright as in the youth! (Reference:  Grove GL, Kligman AM. Age-associated changes in human epidermal cell renewalJ Gerontol. 1983 Mar;38(2):137-42).  

Stem cells may repair liver damage

  • Researchers have found a way to reprogram cells from mouse tails to behave like mature liver cells, which appear to be able to repair damaged livers, according to a study published in Nature. Read more... According to this research the hepatocytes generated from a patient’s own induced pluripotent stem cells could theoretically avoid immunological rejection! 

Evidence for human lung stem cells!

  • Researchers say they have found lung stem cells, which may hold therapeutic value for repairing damaged respiratory tissue, according to a study published this week in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). The team identified the lung stem cells from human lungs in a tissue bank using specific genetic markers, and demonstrated their stem-cell-ness by confirming that they could self-renew and differentiate into several different types of lung tissue. When injected into injured mouse lungs, the cells replaced the damaged tissue. 
  • According to the study "Human lungs contain undifferentiated human lung stem cells nested in niches in the distal airways. These cells are self-renewing, clonogenic, and multipotent in vitro. After injection into damaged mouse lung in vivo, human lung stem cells form human bronchioles, alveoli, and pulmonary vessels integrated structurally and functionally with the damaged organ. The formation of a chimeric lung was confirmed by detection of human transcripts for epithelial and vascular genes. In addition, the self-renewal and long-term proliferation of human lung stem cells was shown in serial-transplantation assays". Read more details in the New England Journal of Medicine. 
Stem cells and kidney diseases
  • Translational Nephrology: Tubular regeneration and the role of bone marrow cells: ‘stem cell therapy’ – a panacea? (by Marc E. De Broe): The kidney possesses an impressive regeneration capacity and is the most performant among all tissues in the body. Yet ischaemic injury to the kidney produces acute tubular necrosis and apoptosis followed by tubular regeneration and recovery of renal function. Although mitotic cells are present in the tubules of postischaemic kidneys, the origins of the proliferating cells were considered until recently as the result of this regeneration capacity of the kidney, whereby the surviving remaining tubular cells start proliferating and migrating along the denuded basement membrane... Oliver and colleagues demonstrated that the adult kidney contained numerous (resident) stem cells in the renal papilla, which proliferate and disappear from the papilla during the repair phase of ischaemia. In other words, the adult kidney possesses a ‘reservoir of kidney stem cells’... read more at Oxford journal "Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation" 
  • Although the kidney has been suspected, though not definitively proven, to contain organ-specific pluripotent stem cells, their role in regeneration after renal injury is uncertain (1–3). Recently, however, several investigators found evidence for a renoprotective role of non–organ-specific stem cells in acute renal failure. Arriero et al. (4) reported dramatic protection of the kidney against ischemia/ reperfusion injury after injection of in vitro expanded skeletal muscle-derived stem cells, differentiated along the endothelial lineage (but not after injection of nondifferentiated stem cells). The renal function after ischemia was improved and engraftment of the transplanted cells into the renal microvasculature was documented... read more at Journal of American Society of Nephrology.
  • Poulsom et al. reported that bone marrow derived cells expressing epithelial cell markers could be detected in histologically normal mouse kidneys. In men who received a kidney transplant from female donors, Y chromosome containing cells expressing renal tubular cell markers were observed in the kidneys after injury. Similarly, Gupta et al. reported that in men who received female kidneys, 1% of the tubular cells were Y chromosome positive after the kidneys had recovered from acute tubular necrosis... read more at the Journal of American Society of Nephrology
  • "We previously demonstrated that endothelial cells are severely damaged during renal ischemia-reperfusion and that transplantation of adult human endothelial cells into athymic nude rats subjected to renal ischemia resulted in a dramatic protection of the kidney against injury and dysfunction..." read more at Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 287: F621-F627,  

Antioxidant properties of AFA

  • Antioxidant properties of a novel phycocyanin extract from the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA): Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue-green alga (cyanophyta) rich in phycocyanin (PC), a photosynthetic pigment with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties... read more

Miscellaneous topics

  • Malaysia successfully treat cartilage with stem cell: Malaysia had been successful in transplanting stem cell to treat worn-and-torn cartilage... Malaysian Health Minster Liow Tiong Lai said after launching the Stem Cell Research and Therapy Seminar that Malaysia was as advanced as other countries in terms of stem cell research and therapy... read more
  • Stem cells for repair of cartilage and bone (BMJ): Tissue in the body is replaced by two main mechanisms. One is self repair by fully differentiated cells (healing), and the second is replacement with newly differentiated cells derived from stem cells. Recently, the regenerative potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been under intense investigation because of their ability for self renewal and differentiation to reconstitute muscle, cartilage, or bone... read more
  • Stem cells are more flexible than previously thought, research suggests: Thousands of patients could benefit from a new discovery that could widen the use of stem cells in groundbreaking medical treatments... Research by British scientists has shown the body is more flexible in its production of stem cells than previously thought... The discovery widens the possibilities for the use of such cells in surgical procedures for treating damaged tissue and organs... read more
  • Stem Cell Research Heralds Cure for Diabetes: An Argentinean research group found that implanting stem cells into the pancreas of patients suffering from type 2 diabetes, effectively improved the production of Endogenous Insulin, increased the levels of C Peptide, decreased blood glucose levels and glycated hemoglobin levels faster than other treatment that has been tested so far... read more
  • Stem Cell Researchers Target Knee Injuries: November 17, 2008: Bristol University researchers are ready to try a new treatment on humans to repair cartilage, the latest application involving adult stem cells. Adult Stem Cells Have Plenty of Potential... A new treatment uses a patient's stem cells to fix tears in the knee's meniscal cartilage, the Daily Telegraph reports. Scientists are ready to try the procedure out on people...read more
  • Stem cells with potential to regenerate injured liver tissue identified: PHILADELPHIA: A novel protein marker has been found that identifies rare adult liver stem cells, whose ability to regenerate injured liver tissue has the potential for cell-replacement therapy. For the first time, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine led by Linda Greenbaum, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine in the Division of Gastroenterology, have demonstrated that cells expressing the marker can differentiate into both liver cells and cells that line the bile duct... full story

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